of what technology is doing.
When I was at the Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab,
this is what we learned.
How could you use everything we know
about the psychology of what persuades people
and build that into technology?
Now, many of you in the audience are geniuses already.
I think that's true, but my goal is to turn you into a behavior-change genius.
我认为这是事实 但我的目标是 让你们变成行为改变的天才
There are many prominent Silicon Valley figures who went through that class
key growth figures at Facebook and Uber and... and other companies
and learned how to make technology more persuasive,
Tristan being one.
Persuasive technology is just sort of design
intentionally applied to the extreme,
where we really want to modify someone's behavior.
We want them to take this action.
We want them to keep doing this with their finger.
You pull down and you refresh, it's gonna be a new thing at the top.
你往下拉 刷新 最上面就是新的内容
Pull down and refresh again, it's new. Every single time.
再下拉 再刷新 又是新的 每一次都是
Which, in psychology, we call a positive intermittent reinforcement.
You don't know when you're gonna get it or if you're gonna get something,
which operates just like the slot machines in Vegas.
It's not enough that you use the product consciously,
I wanna dig down deeper into the brain stem
and implant, inside of you, an unconscious habit
so that you are being prograed at a deeper level.
You don't even realize it.
A man, James Marshall...
Every time you see it there on the counter,
and you just look at it, and you know if you reach over,
it just might have something for you,
so you play that slot machine to see what you got, right?
于是你就玩了一下老虎机 看你能得到什么 对吧？
That's not by accident. That's a design technique.
He brings a golden nugget to an officer in the army in San Francisco.
Mind you, the... the population of San Francisco was only...
别忘了 旧金山的人口数量 当时只有…
Another example is photo tagging.
So, if you get an e-mail
that says your friend just tagged you in a photo,
of course you're going to click on that e-mail and look at the photo.
It's not something you can just decide to ignore.
This is deep-seated, like,
human personality that they're tapping into.
What you should be asking yourself is:
"Why doesn't that e-mail contain the photo in it?
It would be a lot easier to see the photo."
这样 看照片就会容易很多 ”
When Facebook found that feature, they just dialed the hell out of that
because they said, "This is gonna be a great way to grow activity.
Let's just get people tagging each other in photos all day long."
Okay, Rebecca received it, and she is responding.
All right, let Ben know that she's typing so we don't lose him.
好 让本知道她在输入 别让他下线了
Great, she posted.
He's coenting on her coent about his coent on her post.
Hold on, he stopped typing.
Emojis. He loves emojis.
He went with fire.
I was rootin' for eggplant.
There's an entire discipline and field called "growth hacking."
Teams of engineers whose job is to hack people's psychology
so they can get more growth.
They can get more user sign-ups, more engagement.
They can get you to invite more people.
After all the testing, all the iterating, all of this stuff,
you know the single biggest thing we realized?
Get any individual to seven friends in ten days.
Chamath was the head of growth at Facebook early on,
and he's very well known in the tech industry
for pioneering a lot of the growth tactics
that were used to grow Facebook at incredible speed.
And those growth tactics have then become the standard playbook for Silicon Valley.
They were used at Uber and at a bunch of other companies.
One of the things that he pioneered was the use of scientific A/B testing
of small feature changes.
Companies like Google and Facebook
would roll out lots of little, tiny experiments
that they were constantly doing on users.
And over time, by running these constant experiments,
you... you develop the most optimal way
to get users to do what you want them to do.
It's... It's manipulation.
you're making me feel like a lab rat.
You are a lab rat. We're all lab rats.
And it's not like we're lab rats for developing a cure for cancer.
It's not like they're trying to benefit us.
Right? We're just zombies, and they want us to look at more ads
so they can make more money.
what they called "massive-scale contagion experiments."
How do we use subliminal cues on the Facebook pages
to get more people to go vote in the midterm elections?
And they discovered that they were able to do that.
One thing they concluded is that we now know
we can affect real-world behavior and emotions
without ever triggering the user's awareness.
They are completely clueless.